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    Unsafe sex and Emergency contraception

    What is unsafe sex?

    Unsafe sex, also called unprotected sex means having sexual intercourse (vaginal, anal or oral) between the partners without taking any precaution to reduce the risk of infection i.e. sexually transmitted disease STI or HIV AIDS.


    The most sought-after protection is a condom that is easy to use and can prevent pregnancy as well as an infection.


    The Consequence of Unsafe Sex

    The consequences of Unsafe sex leads to the following major health concerns:

    • Increase the risk of sexually transmitted diseases like HIV
    • Increase the risk of pregnancy

    As body fluids like semen and blood are passed from one partner to another during sexual intercourse. It increases the risk of certain conditions like HIV, and other sexually transmitted Infections (STI). Also, the risk of getting pregnant is potentially high after unprotected sex.

    STI or STD: STI or Sexually Transmitted Infection or disease is an infection that is transferred through sexual intercourse. Anyone who is sexually active can get STI.

    HIV: HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus and this virus attacks the immune system of the person and weakens the body's ability to fight infections and disease.

    It is spread by unprotected sexual intercourse, including vaginal, anal and sometimes even oral sex. It is the most deadly, non-curable STI among others like gonorrhea, syphilis, Herpes, etc.


    Risk Factors:

    The most susceptible people are:

    • An individual having sex with multiple partners.
    • No protection during sexual intercourse
    • Influencers like Alcohol, drugs, etc.
    • Young individuals mostly less than 25yrs age
    • Split or slip of condom during the intercourse


    Signs and symptoms

    The presentation of the symptoms during sexually transmitted disease is not fixed. It may present immediately with mild discomfort or will flare after some time with varies sequence. Here are some that may occur in STI (STD symptoms)

    • Sores on or around the genitalia or mouth
    • Discharge from the genitals
    • Pain or burning during urination (Urinary tract infection)
    • Itching or pain in the vagina or penis
    • Swelling or pain near genitals
    • Pain in the lower abdomen
    • Fever and chills
    • Bleeding other than menstrual period etc.
    • Signs of pregnancy


    Pregnancy can be tested by a simple home test or a blood test. Unwanted pregnancy can be prevented by using emergency contraception.

    Emergency contraception or postcoital contraception is a form of birth control that can be used after unprotected sex or when the birth control method fails. It includes condom break during sex, missing two or more birth control pills, being raped.

    Emergency Contraception is used to prevent a pregnancy not to end it.


    There are two types of emergency contraception:


    Emergency Contraceptive Pill (sometimes referred to as "Morning pills"): It contain progesterone hormone which stops or delays the release of an egg (Ovulation). It should be taken within 72 hours of unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy.

    IUD (Intrauterine Device): It is a small T-shaped plastic device that is fitted inside your uterus by your doctor. The device prevents the entry of sperm to prevent pregnancy. Once you have inserted, you don't have to think about it and neither does your partner.

    To prevent STI the couples should encourage each other to ensure SAFE SEX METHODS Safe sex

    Safe sex is the sexual intercourse done with protection e.g. condom. This is the best way to protect yourself and your partner from unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. It will also help you in staying healthy.


    Tips for safe sex

    • One of the best ways to have safe sex is by using a barrier like a condom every time you do sexual intercourse. A barrier can prevent the exchange of body fluids and skin to skin contact to protect the spread of STIs and to get pregnant.
    • Avoid multiple sexual partners.
    • Regularly undergo STI testing and if required take treatment
    • Stay away from drugs and alcohol as they can affect your ability to make good decisions


    The diagnosis of STI can be confirmed with a urine or fluid sample.In the case of active genital sores, laboratory testing of fluid and samples from the sores is done to diagnose the type of infection. Consult the skin specialist on urgent basis. Treatment of STI depends upon a specific type of infection.

    Diagnosis of HIV is done by testing the blood or saliva samples for antibodies to the virus (viz. Elisa/PCR/western blot test etc.). Treatment of HIV requires antiviral tablets and various other ways to control infection and boost the immune system of the body.

    Frequently Asked Questions

    The emergency contraceptive pill will not have any major long-term effect on your reproductive health. It may only cause irregular bleeding patterns or early or delayed periods. But nevertheless, emergency contraception will not affect your fertility or become less effective over time. 


    There are actually no safety concerns about taking emergency contraceptive pills more than once in a month. They are found to be effective in preventing pregnancy after unsafe sex each time you use it. But for prevention, read the cover of the emergency contraceptive or consult your doctor. 

    The emergency contraceptive pill will not have any major long-term effect on your reproductive health. It may only cause irregular bleeding patterns or early or delayed periods. But nevertheless, emergency contraception will not affect your fertility or become less effective over time.

    The emergency contraceptive pill should be taken within 3 days (Levonelle) (72-hour pill) or 5 days (ellaOne) of unprotected sex for it to be effective. The sooner you take the more effective it will be. In case of IUD, it can be fitted up to 5 days after unprotected sex or up to 5 days after the earliest time you could have ovulated.


    Practicing safe sex is most important to prevent STDs. Having safer sex means using a latex or polyurethane barrier for all forms of sex. This includes using:

    • a male or female condom for intercourse
    • dental dams for oral sex
    • gloves for manual penetration


    Precaution while doing sex is very important to prevent unwanted pregnancy and the spread of sexually transmitted infections. 


    As your daughter has grown up now, it is very important for you to discuss safe sex with her. Follow the following guidelines for a healthy discussion: 

    • Find a time when she is relaxed and can focus
    • Start the discussion with reproductive growth
    • Use positive language
    • Make sure you have a two-way conversation
    • Tell the benefits of safe sex
    • Give tips about safe sex

    It's completely safe to have sex during your period. Moreover, it has been observed that having an orgasm may help relieve menstrual cramps and make you feel happy and content even during those difficult days. 


    Yes, you can do sex but should follow safe sex and always use a barrier method to prevent pregnancy and spread of sexually transmitted diseases. 


    You can take an emergency contraceptive pill up to 5 days after unprotected sex. But it is better to take it at the earliest to prevent pregnancy. 


    No, a contraceptive pill will not work now. If you have skipped periods after unsafe sex, please visit your doctor and consult her for better steps to manage. 


    Most women can use emergency contraceptive pills. Even girls under 16 years of age can also use it.

    But you may not be able to take pills

    • If you are allergic to anything in it
    • Have severe asthma


    The emergency contraceptive pill is to prevent pregnancy, and not to end the pregnancy. So if you have already become pregnant, it will not harm your pregnancy.  

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